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The Cyberspace Electronic Security Act

The Cyberspace Electronic Security Act

The Cyberspace Electronic Security Act (CESA) was passed in 1999, and it gives law enforcement the right to gain access to encryption keys and cryptography methods. The initial version of this act allowed federal law enforcement agencies to secretly use monitoring, electronic capturing equipment, and other technologies to access and obtain information. These provisions were later stricken from the act, …

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The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) dictates that educational institutions may not release information to unauthorized parties without the express permission of the student or, in the case of a minor, the parents of the student. This act also requires that educational institutions must disclose any records kept on a student when demanded by that student. The law …

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The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) went into a law in 1986. The original law as introduced to address issues of fraud and abuse that weren’t well covered under existing statues. The law was updated inn 1994, in 1996, and again in 2001. This act gives federal authorities, primarily the FBI, the ability to prosecute hackers, spammers, and others …

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The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

The Gram-Leach-Bliley Act, also known as the Financial Modernization Act of 1999, requires financial institutions to develop privacy notices and to notify customers that they are entitled to privacy. The act prohibits banks from releasing information to nonaffiliated third parties without permission. Many customers groups have criticized the implementation of this act by financial institutions because of all the paperwork …

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The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): is a regulation that mandates national standards and procedures for the storage, use, and transmission of personal medical information. Passed into law in 1996, HIPAA has caused a great deal of change in healthcare recordkeeping. HIPAA covers three areas—confidentiality, privacy, and the security of patient records. It was implemented in several phases …

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Cookies and Attachments

Cookies and Attachments

Cookies and Attachments: Cookies are texts files that a browser maintains on the user’s hard disk in order to provide a persistent, customized web experience for each visit. A cookie typically contains information about the user. For example, a cookie can contain a client’s history to improve customer services. If a bookstore wants to know your buying habits and what …

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ACL: Access Control Lists

Access Control Lists

Access Control Lists: Related to permissions is the concept of the access control lists (ACL). An ACL is literally a list of who can access what resource and at what level. It can be an internal part of an operating system or application. For example, a custom application might have an ACL that lists which users have what permissions (access …

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Malicious Insider Threats

Malicious Insider Threats

Malicious Insider Threats: One of the most dangerous threats to any network is an insider who is intent on doing harm. By being an insider, they have already gotten past your first defense and they might be motivated by a desire to make someone pay for passing them over for promotions, bored and looking for something to do, or driven …

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Managing Spam to Avoid Viruses

Managing Spam to Avoid Viruses

Managing Spam to Avoid Viruses: Although spam is not truly a virus or a hoax, it is one of the most annoying things with which an administrator must contend. Spam is defined as any unwanted, unsolicited email, and not only can the sheer volume of it be irritating, but it can also often open the door to larger problems. For …

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How Viruses Work

How Viruses Work

How Viruses Work: A virus, in most cases, tries to accomplish one of two things: render your system inoperable or spread to other systems. Many viruses will spread to other systems given the chance and then render your system unusable. This is common with many of the newer viruses. If your system is infected, the virus may try to attack …

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